Decoding Advanced Driver Assist System
ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) is one of the fastest-growing segments of automotive electronics in the advancing mobility value chain, fueled by stringent government regulations and consumer interest in safety applications that protect drivers and reduce accidents.
One of the most important factors inhibiting the demand of ADAS in a country like India may be a lack of consumer awareness. According to a survey conducted by McKinsey of more than 4,500 car buyers, many respondents were unfamiliar with ADAS applications but at the same time, it also revealed that the repurchase rate for those who did buy a vehicle with ADAS was quite high, ranging from 87 to 89 percent.
So, let’s decode the ADAS technology, the key driver of autopiloted driving.
What is ADAS?
ADAS is an umbrella term for an electronic system embedded in a vehicle, designed with a human-machine interface to assist a driver in the process of driving.
ADAS systems are expensive to install and will significantly add to the price of cars across the spectrum if embedded in vehicles in India.~
It monitors the surroundings of the vehicle using inputs from multiple data sources, including automotive imaging, LiDAR, radar, image processing, computer vision, and in-car networking to provide assistance to the driver for a safer and more comfortable driving experience.
How does ADAS work?
There are five key components powering ADAS functionality.
Sensors: Sensors yield real-time, actionable data when connected to a network or cloud in the vehicle. They gather information on their immediate environment, such as pedestrians and oncoming cars.
Processors: Processors are used for everything from building a real-time 3D spatial model of a car’s surroundings to calculating proximity and threat levels based on the environment.
Software: The software algorithms use the input from sensors to synthesize the environment surrounding a vehicle in real-time. The algorithms then provide output to the driver or specify how the system should actively intervene in vehicle control.
Mapping: The ADAS mapping function stores and updates geographical and infrastructure information gathered via vehicle sensors to determine its exact location. This function maintains the information and communicates it to system control even if GPS coverage fails.
Actuators: The electrification of the actuator system facilitates interaction with other electrical components in the vehicle. With processors to analyze data from vehicle sensors, the ADAS system can make decisions executable by actuators.
How does ADAS ensure passenger safety?
Some key ADAS features include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Departure Warning Systems, Collision Warning Systems, Blind Spot Detection Systems, Night Vision Systems and Parking Assistance Systems to ensure vehicle safety.
Adaptive Cruise Control: Adaptive Cruise Control is based on onboard radar or a laser sensor that is integrated within the engine as well as breaks of the vehicles so that when the system detects any vehicle in its roadway, it automatically slows down and then reaccelerate to the set speed when the path is clear.
Lane Departure Warning System: This system uses a small camera mounted near the rearview mirror to recognize the striped and solid lane markings so that whenever the vehicle starts deviating from the lane without an appropriate turn signal, this system triggers an alarm to react to.
Collision Warning System: Collision Warning Systems work on an integrated radar, laser and camera systems to generate audio, visual and tactical alerts in case of any possibility of collisions with another vehicle or object.
Parking Assistance Systems: This system uses ultrasonic sensors fixed on the front and rear bumpers of the vehicle to detect obstacles while parking and trigger alarm.
Night Vision and Pedestrian Detection System: Pedestrian detection systems with night vision are equipped with thermal cameras and far-infrared sensors that capture thermal radiations from the front of the vehicle and distinguish living beings from objects, trees and traffic signs on pedestrian and roadways.
Tire Pressure Management System: Tire pressure monitoring systems can be divided into two categories: indirect and direct systems. Indirect systems measure revolutions per minute of the tires and in case of any deviation, the indication is sent by the system. In Direct systems, the pressure inside each tire is detected by pressure sensors.
Traffic Signal Detector: Using this technology by which a vehicle is able to recognize the traffic signs put on the road with the help of image processing techniques to detect the traffic signs divided into color-based, shape-based and learning-based methods.
How India is embracing ADAS technology?
Advanced driver assistance systems require basic infrastructure such as well-organized roads, lane marking, and availability of GPS for effective functioning. Also, V2V and V2X communications require adequate connectivity infrastructure.
In a developing country like India, the development of IT infrastructure on highways is slow as compared to developed economies. 3G and 4G-LTE communication networks, which are required for connectivity, are offered in urban and semi-urban areas only. While several third-party logistics companies operate in semi-urban and rural areas, there are issues of low connectivity. Also, these developing countries need support from the government for the adoption of ADAS features in a vehicle.
At the 2018 SIAM conference, Union Minister for Road and Highway Transport said that they are working towards introducing a mandate which will bring Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS) in all cars by 2022. Considering the given timeline, there is still a long way to go before its implementation. Intelligent driver assist systems are expensive to install, and will significantly add to the price of cars across the spectrum if bought in place.
At present, premium car manufacturers like Volvo and Mercedes are the only ones offering real advanced assistance systems like adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assistance and automatic braking but the large-scale acceptability of these systems also depends upon their integration in the vehicle that too sans much price hike.